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Why God Created Evil: The Absence of Good?

By Vexen Crabtree 2004

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1. The Problem of Evil

#determinism #evil #god #life #philosophy #religion #suffering #theodicy #theology

If God is all-powerful and all-good, it would have created a universe in the same way it created heaven: with free will for all, no suffering and no evil. But evil and suffering exist. Therefore God does not exist, is not all-powerful or is not benevolent (good)1. Such arguments have been used by many philosophers as evidence against belief in god2,3. A theodicy is an attempt to explain why a good god would have created evil and suffering. The most popular defence is that it is so Humans could have free will. However the entire universe and the natural world is filled with suffering, violence and destruction so any Humanity-centric explanation does not seem to work.

"The Problem of Evil: Why Would a Good God Create Suffering?" by Vexen Crabtree (2011)

The Absence Theodicy is the argument that as God is "goodness", anything that is "not good" such as evil and suffering, is simply the result of the absence of God. Therefore, the absence theodicy (attempts) to excuse God's responsible for evil, by trying to discretely contradict the principal of God's all-powerful and omni-present nature. It is traceable to Augustine (354-430CE), and was also preached by Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274CE) and many other Catholic theologians4. There are serious flaws with the absence theodicy argument and it does not escape the fact that God, as the sole creator, was responsible for creating rules such as "if I'm not there, then there is suffering!". It didn't need to make such rules, and therefore, the absence theodicy doesn't answer the question of why God created (or allows) evil and suffering to exist.

2. Putting Good and Evil on a Scale, We See that the Absence Theodicy Fails

We define many scales as part of our experience. From "hot" to "cold", from "rich" to "poor", we measure all kinds of things. What these have in common is that God created them. It created heat and cold, created the "ups" and "downs" and created every little in-between bit of all those scales. Likewise, God created the scale of good and evil. God could have created a scale of "amazing goodness" through to "medium goodness" down to "amateur goodness", and therefore let all beings experience no evil or suffering. That God decided to create evil, suffering and pain and put them on the scale is an inexplicable act for a supposedly all-good god. The explanation that suffering is the absence of good is not sufficient to explain why God created suffering in the first place. Either God is evil or it does not exist.

The absence theodicy does not explain why god created the scale of good and evil. We only experience any of these varying things because God created the scales in the first place, and created the extent of either end of the scale. By creating scales of heat and chill, good and evil, god makes it possible for us to experience them. If God chose not to create the scale of good and evil, then experience of evil would not be possible, only the experience of good. Not all experiences exist on scales; for example the Universe exists. Its existence and our experience of its existence is not on a scale, it absolutely exists. God could have made happiness or goodness an absolute, not part of a scale. But God instead created evil by creating the good/evil dichotomy.

All the various attempts to explain why God created evil do not make sense and we are therefore left with the truth that either God is evil or does not exist.

3. Albert Einstein and the Absence Theodicy

3.1. An Urban Myth

This page was written as an online response to an evangelizing Christian who sent me an email about the problem of evil. The following text is a standard text that some Christians insert into arguments, often not researching its legitimacy or analysing its logic.

The professor of a university challenged his students with this question. "Did God create everything that exists?" A student answered bravely, "Yes, he did".

The professor then asked, "If God created everything, then he created evil, so God is evil. The student couldn't respond to that statement causing the professor to conclude that he had "proved" that "belief in God" was a fairy tale, and therefore worthless.

Another student raised his hand and asked the professor, "May I pose a question?" "Of course" answered the professor. The young student stood up and asked: "Professor does cold exist?" The professor answered, "What kind of question is that?...Of course the cold exists... haven't you ever been cold?" The young student answered, "In fact sir, cold does not exist. According to the laws of physics, what we consider cold, in fact is the absence of heat. Anything is able to be studied as long as it transmits energy (heat). Absolute Zero is the total absence of heat, but cold does not exist. What we have done is create a term to describe how we feel if we don't have body heat or we are not hot." "And, does dark exist?", he continued. The professor answered "Of course". This time the student responded, "Again you're wrong, Sir. Darkness does not exist either. Darkness is in fact simply the absence of light. Light can be studied, darkness can not. Darkness cannot be broken down. A simple ray of light tears the darkness and illuminates the surface where the! light beam finishes. Dark is a term that we humans have created to describe what happens when there's lack of light." Finally, the student asked the professor, "Sir, does evil exist?" The professor replied, "Of course it exists, as I mentioned at the beginning, we see violations, crimes and violence anywhere in the world, and those things are evil."

The student responded, "Sir, evil does not exist. Just as in the previous cases, evil is a term which man has created to describe the result of the absence of God's presence in the hearts of man."

After this, the professor bowed down his head, and didn't answer back.

The young man's name was ALBERT EINSTEIN.

The absence-of-God theodicy doesn't work for reasons already discussed, and I am sure that from the knowledge of religion and philosophy that Einstein displayed during his life, he would also have known the historical reasons why the absence theodicy was abandoned. The words and comments of Einstein are highly documented and very well known. No historians of Einstein testify that the above quote is valid, Einstein's religious views were clearly written down by himself as we shall see later. So, was that really Albert Einstein? With this doubt in mind, I searched a few urban-myth websites to find out the source of the story.

This story of an atheist professor is old, but it has only recently had Einstein's name added to it. It is mythical.

3.2. Einstein Did Not Believe in God

To dispel myths, Einstein wrote the following in response to comments made about him during his lifetime:

It was, of course, a lie what you read about my religious convictions, a lie which is being systematically repeated. I do not believe in a personal God and I have never denied this but have expressed it clearly. If something is in me which can be called religious then it is the unbounded admiration for the structure of the world so far as our science can reveal it.

"The Human Side" by Albert Einstein (1981)

4. Is God Evil?

To the present day, all theodicies have failed to explain why a good god would create evil, meaning that the existence of evil is simply incompatible with the existence of a good god. After thousands of years of life-consuming passion, weary theologians have not formulated a new answer to the problem of evil for a long time. The violence of the natural world, disease, the major catastrophes and chaotic destruction seen across the universe and the unsuitability of the vastness of reality for life all indicate that god is not concerned with life, and might actually even be evil. Failure to answer the problem of evil sheds continual doubt on the very foundations of theistic religions.

"The Problem of Evil: Why Would a Good God Create Suffering?: 9. Conclusion" by Vexen Crabtree (2011)

Current edition: 2004 Nov 09
Last Modified: 2012 Dec 05
Parent page: The Problem of Evil: Why Would a Good God Create Suffering?

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References: (What's this?)

Davies, Paul
(1984) God And The New Physics. Paperback book. Penguin 2006 edition. Davies is a Professor in theoretical physics who has published ground-breaking research.

Einstein, Albert. (1879-1955)
(1981) The Human Side. Paperback book. Published by Princeton University Press. A series of previously unpublished essays and letters, edited by Helen Dukas and B. Hoffman.

Hick, John
"Evil and the God of Love" (1977). In "The Encyclopedia of Religion" by Eliade Mircea (1987) Volume 14 entry "Theodicy". Added to this page on 2012 Dec 05.

Hille, Rolf
(2016) "A Biblical-Theological Response to the Problem of Theodicy in the Context of the Modem Criticism of Religion". Published in the Evangelical Review of Theology (2016) 40:3, 247-263.

Momen, Moojan
(1999) The Phenomenon Of Religion: A Thematic Approach. Paperback book. Published by Oneworld Publications, Oxford, UK. Book Review.


  1. Davies (1984) p142-143.^
  2. Momen (1999) p214.^
  3. Theologian Rolf Hille (2016) complains that 'no form of the denial of God has worked as effectively even until the present as the apparently insoluble conflict between God´s goodness and omnipotence and the evils of the world'.^
  4. Hick (1977).^

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