The Human Truth Foundation

Scandinavia, the Crown of Civilisation
Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Finland and Iceland

By Vexen Crabtree 2006

#australia #denmark #estonia #finland #human_development #iceland #new_zealand #norway #politics #polytheism #scandinavia #sweden #switzerland #USA

Social & Moral
Development Index
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank1
Scandinavia Avg34.5
World Avg86.8

Scandinavian countries have become the most highly developed nations, culturally superior to the rest of the world, the true crowns of human civilisation. They epitomize Europe's society-first democracy and capitalism. They lead the world in many endeavours of Human development, science and social development. This page is witness to much of that success. But no human endeavour is without downfalls, Scandinavia has some crime, some very expensive living costs and (oddly) the occasional high suicide rate.

There are 8 locations that fall within this category. By adding up all the known populations that fall within these locations, and summing their physical land areas, we can calculate population densities. Some islands and territories can end up being counted twice depending on how they are classified and divided up politically, but, mostly such errors involve only small populations. So, some data on this collection of countries in total:

1. Summary Data

#economics #human_development #population #wealth

Pos.Population (2018)
Social & Moral
Lower is better

Avg Rank1
Gross National
Income (2021)
Higher is better
PPP $3
UN HDI (2021)
Higher is better

Land Area (2011)
Per km2
Lower is better
1Denmark5.8m30.0$60 3650.948 42 430 136
2Finland5.5m31.7$49 4520.940 303 890 18
3Iceland0.3m35.0$55 7820.959 100 250 3
4Norway5.3m28.6$64 6600.961 304 250 18
5Sweden10.0m30.7$54 4890.947 410 340 24
6Faroe Islands 1 396
7Estonia1.3m51.0$38 0480.890 42 390 31
Scandinavia Avg4.7m34.5$53 7990.94 172 135 27
World Avg39.0m86.8$20 1360.72 620 450 63
q=7. No data: 15

Not showing due to lack of data: the Faroe Islands.

This page only shows places where the database has enough data to be able to come to reasonable conclusions about each place. The main focus is on nation states, but, some distinct external territories may be listed if the database has enough information about them. Averages are calculated from as many valid data points as possible, meaning, that some territories and locations that are not listed above may still be used to calculate some of the average values. Some calculations only use Independent State data - hover the cursor over values to see hints.


2. Social and Moral Development

#climate_change #education #equality #gender_equality #health #human_development #human_rights #modernity #morals #politics #prejudice #technology #the_environment #the_internet #tolerance

Here are each country's overall scores across the categories that make up the Social and Moral Development Index. This is followed by lists of how each country scores in each individual data set.

Pos.Social & Moral
Lower is better

Avg Rank1
Modernity & Learning (2020)
Lower is better

Avg Rank6
Health (2020)
Lower is better

Avg Rank7
Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance (2020)
Lower is better

Avg Rank8
Responsibility Towards The Environment (2023)
Lower is better

Avg Rank9
Scandinavia Avg34.517.673.020.769.3
World Avg86.883.293.587.985.7

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: Which are the Best Countries in the World? The Social and Moral Development Index.

For more, see:

The Nordic region [...] has the world's highest taxes and most generous welfare benefits. And yet Sweden, Finland and Denmark (Norway's oil sets it apart) have delivered strong growth and low unemployment, and rank among the world's most competitive economies. Nordic companies are strong in technology and research and development. Their health-care and educational systems are much admired. And, unlike other European countries, most Nordic states run healthy budget and current-account surpluses. Sweden, whose 9m people make it by some way the biggest Nordic country, is a particular favourite. A year ago the Guardian, a British newspaper, said it was the most successful society the world had ever known.

The Economist (2006)10

Many European governments have looked to Scandinavia for models and inspiration; delegations have gone to study their education systems, government organisation, social methods and economic policies.

The truth is that there is never a single economic model for other countries, even the Nordic states, to follow. Neither membership of the EU nor adoption of the euro seems necessary: Sweden is in the EU but not the euro, Finland is in both, Norway is in neither. Different countries have different strengths. Mr Bildt puts forward his own tongue-in-cheek recipe for the perfect "Nordic model", stretching the geography: Finland's education, Estonia's progressive tax policy, Denmark's labour market, Iceland's entrepreneurship, Sweden's management of big companies and Norway's oil. The right conclusion, in other words, is that it is wisest not to look for a single-country model at all, but just to take best practice wherever you find it.

The Economist (2006)10

3. Demographics and Migration

#birth_control #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #migration #overpopulation #population


Pos.Population (2018)
Expectancy (2021)
Higher is better

Fertility Rate (2013)
2.0 is best
Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)
Lower is better

Per 10012
Scandinavia Avg4.7m81.581.9136.7
World Avg39.0m71.282.8118.3
q=6. No data: 213


Pos.Immigrants (2017)
Emigrants (2010)
Scandinavia Avg12.9%7.3%
World Avg9.4%11.5%
q=6. No data: 213

4. National Culture

#charity #corruption #happiness #morals #politics

Pos.World Giving Index (2022)
Higher is better

Corruption (2022)
Higher is better

Happiness (2018)
Higher is better

Creativity & Culture (2017)
Lower is better

Open Trading, Aid & Development (2017)
Lower is better

Scandinavia Avg42.782.007.2214.327.3
World Avg39.642.985.3882.082.0
q=6. No data: 213

5. Peace Versus Instability

#extremism #human_development #peace #politics #religious_violence #terrorism

Pos.Global Peace Index (2023)
Lower is better

Peacekeeping & Security (2017)
Lower is better

Refugees & UN Treaties (2017)
Lower is better

Impact of Terrorism (2019)
Lower is better

Scandinavia Avg1.4367.323.71.11
World Avg2.0782.082.02.78
q=6. No data: 213

6. Economic Inequality and Poverty

#capitalism #economics #health #inequality #life_expectancy #poverty #social_development

Pos.Inequality in Life Expectancy (2019)
Lower is better22
Income Inequality (Gini Coefficient) (2017)
Lower is better

Multidimensional Poverty (2018)
Lower is better

Scandinavia Avg3.0828.8
World Avg14.5938.1.154
q=6. No data: 213

7. Modernity and Learning

#education #english #intelligence #it_security #maths #politics #religion #religiosity #research #science #secularisation #the_internet

Modernity and Education:

Pos.Research & Development (2016)
Higher is better

Secondary Education (2018)
Higher is better
Length of Schooling (2021)
Higher is better

Intellectual Endeavours (2017)
Lower is better

Maths, Science & Reading (2015)
Higher is better

Religiosity (2018)
Lower is better

IQ (2006)
Higher is better29
Scandinavia Avg2.4095.6%18.421.3151610.899.3
World Avg0.8463.0%13.582.0138954.385.6
q=6. No data: 213

Technology and Information:

Pos.Internet Users (2016)
Higher is better
Internet Freedom (2012)
Lower is better
IT Security (2013)
Lower is better
IPv6 Uptake (2017)
Higher is better

6Faroe Islands99%1.4
Scandinavia Avg95.7%10.00.447.87
World Avg48.1%46.70.983.82
q=7. No data: 15

8. Health

#alcohol #birth_control #demographics #health #life_expectancy #longevity #mental_health #obesity #overpopulation #parenting #population #smoking #suicide #vaccines

The countries with the best overall approach to public health, in terms of both public policy and individual lifestyle choices, are Monaco, Hong Kong and The Maldives35. These countries are worth emulating. And, although often through no fault of the average citizen, the worst countries are The Marshall Islands, S. Sudan and Palau35.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are its average life expectancy, its alcohol consumption rate, its fertility rate, its smoking rate, its suicide rate, its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance, the prevalence of overweight adults, its adolescent birth rate and its immunizations take-up. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Asia and The Mediterranean35, whereas the worst are Micronesia, Australasia and Africa35.

For more, see:


Expectancy (2021)
Higher is better

Alcohol Consumption (2016)
Lower is better

Per Capita36
Fertility Rate (2013)
2.0 is best
Smoking Rates (2014)
Lower is better
Suicide Rate (2013)
Per 100k38
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)
Lower is better

Overweight Adults (2016)
Lower is better

1Denmark81.410.41.881 37823.9355.4
2Finland82.010.71.871 083391257.9
3Iceland82.79.12.10 55123.54159.1
4Norway83.27.51.95 55623.8558.3
5Sweden83.09.21.93 83125.5156.4
6Estonia77.111.61.711 77537.92755.8
Scandinavia Avg81.589.81.911 02928.9314.857.2
World Avg71.286.22.81 81920.9382.049.0
q=6. No data: 213

Children's Health:

Pos.Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)
Lower is better

Per 100040
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)
Higher is better

Avg %41
Scandinavia Avg6.991.3
World Avg47.988.3
q=6. No data: 213

9. Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance

#antisemitism #equality #freedom #freethought #gender #gender_equality #homosexuality #human_rights #international_law #mass_media #misogyny #politics #prejudice #religious_tolerance #slavery #tolerance #women

The best countries in the world at ensuring human rights, fostering equality and promoting tolerance, are Sweden, Norway and Denmark42. These countries are displaying the best traits that humanity has to offer. The worst countries are The Solomon Islands, Somalia and Tuvalu42.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are statistics on commentary in Human Rights Watch reports, its nominal commitment to Human Rights, speed of uptake of HR treaties, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms, supporting press freedom, eliminating modern slavery, opposing gender inequality, the rate of gender bias (from 7 indicators), the year from which women could participate in democracy, its success in fighting anti-semitic prejudice, LGBT equality and freethought. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Baltic States and Europe42, whereas the worst are Melanesia, Micronesia and Australasia42.

For more, see:

Human Rights & Tolerance:

Pos.HRW (2017)
Higher is better

Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)
Higher is better

HR Treaties Lag (2019)
Lower is better

Avg Yrs/Treaty45
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)
Lower is better

Press Freedom (2013)
Lower is better
Slavery (2018)
Lower is better

% Victims48
Scandinavia Avg4.820.27.0214.77830.21
World Avg-1.915.110.0279.732490.65
q=6. No data: 213

Gender Equality:

Pos.Gender Inequality (2015)
Lower is better
Gender Biases (2022)
Lower is better

Year Women Can Vote
Lower is better

Scandinavia Avg0.0651.161915
World Avg0.3683.931930
q=6. No data: 213


Pos.Anti-Semite Opinions (2014)
Lower is better

LGBT Equality (2017)
Higher is better

Freedom of Thought (2021)
Lower is better
Scandinavia Avg13.567.32.2
World Avg36.812.63.0
q=6. No data: 213

10. Responsibility Towards The Environment

#biodiversity #climate_change #deforestation #energy #food #meat #over-exploitation #sustainability #the_environment #veganism #vegetarianism

Pos.Forest Area Change 1990-2015 (2015)
Higher is better

Environmental Performance (2018)
Higher is better
Energy to GDP Efficiency (2014)
Higher is better57
Earlier is better

Rational Beliefs on the Environment (2011)
Higher is better
Meat Consumption (2021)
Lower is better

Green Future Index (2023)
Higher is better

1Denmark+12.681.614.931994 Mar 2114.9%70.56.3
2Finland+01.878.606.331994 Oct 2522.9%74.06.7
3Iceland+205.678.602.411994 Dec 1113.1%83.66.7
4Norway-00.277.510.421993 Dec 2920.5%74.76.4
5Sweden+00.880.508.621994 Mar 1624.3%66.96.3
6Estonia+01.264.306.131994 Oct 2515.9%72.1
Scandinavia Avg+37.076.908.141899 Dec 3018.6%73.66.5
World Avg+02.856.409.291899 Dec 3039.9%52.54.8
q=6. No data: 213

11. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #folk_religion #god #hinduism #human_development #islam #judaism #no_religion #religion #religiosity #secularisation

Pos.Religiosity (2018)
Lower is better

Disbelief In God (2007)
Higher is better
Jews (2010)
Christians (2010)
Muslims (2010)
Hindus (2010)
Buddhists (2010)
Folk Religion (2010)
Unaffiliated (2010)
6Faroe Islands0.
Scandinavia Avg10.839.
World Avg54.39.90.560.622.
q=7. No data: 15


Disbelief In God (2007)61
Pos.Higher is better
Scandinavia Avg39.3
Belief in God (2005)63
Religiosity (2018)28
Pos.Lower is better
Scandinavia Avg10.8

The tables on the right give 3 different ways of looking at a similar trend. Firstly, the "Disbelief in God" and "Belief in God" tables are opposites - you can infer that if you add up the two values, what you are left with is those who are unsure. Because the datasets are obtained via different polls, using differently worded questions, you can expect irregular results as people's responses to questions on religion depend a lot on how the question is phrased. Local terms and associations colour people's perceptions of what is being asked. Even polytheists, who believe in many gods, will say "no" if asked "Do you believe in God?" as the capital-G-God might make them think that the question is really asking "Do you believe in the Abrahamic God of Judaism, Christianity or Islam?". So, wordings are important, which means poll results can differ more than expected. Nonetheless, the results of the two belief-in-god charts are quite harmonious - the two Scandinavian countries that disbelieve in god most strongly (Sweden and Estonia) are also those who believe in God least, and these are also two of the least religious countries in the world too.

The standard nordic religious structure combines a secular (non-religious) society with an anachronistic state-backed established church, for example the Lutheran church of Finland. Most people sign up for this church in order to obtain clergy for weddings and funerals. So, although 85% of Finns sign up, it "need not imply a deep belief in the tenets of Martin Luther"64. The local sociologist Kimmo Ketola says that "Finns are neither very attached to religion, nor very opposed to it"64. This is evidenced by the explosive popularity of a website designed to make it easy to resign from the state church. Set up by The Freethinkers of Tampere in 2003, by 2007 over 60 thousand people had used the site to resign and in total the Lutheran Church lost 2.6% of its adherents from 2000-200665. Over a generation of 60 years at the current rate, the Church will lose nearly a third of its membership by 2060.

The Freethinkers of Tampere created a web site, ("eroa kirkosta" roughly translates to "resign from the church"), in 2003 to assist people to resign from the state church to further the goal of separation of state and church, and to promote a secular society. The web site became a success; in 2006 79% of all resignations went through the site. The same figure was 69% in 2005, and 39% in 2004. (2007)65

With distinct pagan roots in Nordic warrior religions Nordics were never subjugated by Christian armies and the Inquisition never gained a hold66. They are now thoroughly secular societies. The sociologist of religion, Steve Bruce, says that Scandinavia became secular largely because the established churches represented the élite, "the masses found themselves little served by a state church which drew its professionals from the upper classes and advanced the ideological perspectives of the socially dominant"67. I have chartered the massive decline in religiosity in the UK, but Norway has much lower Church attendance68.

On top of that, Scandinavia, in particular Norway, has cultivated and spawned some powerful anti-religious movements. The Black Metal movement that grew to infamy in the 1990s hit the national newspapers with almost one-hundred church burnings, and espoused a venomously anti-Christian doctrine. Its adherents worshipped Odin, the Norse gods, and Satan. They wanted not only the continued decline of Christianity, but a revival of Nordic paganism. In addition, Scandinavia has a healthy population of LaVeyan Satanists.69

In Norway a government-appointed commission in 2006 proposed that the Lutheran Church be disestablished, similar "to changes made by the neighbouring (Lutheran) Church of Sweden, in 2000", the UK's National Secular Society reported:

The Lutheran Church of Norway has voted to separate itself from the state after 500 years of establishment. Sixty-three of 85 synod delegates voted that the church should no longer be referred to in the country's constitution as a State or national church. The synod wants the church to be founded on a separate act passed by parliament. The general synod said it should itself assume all church authority now resting with the king and the government.

"The synod's decision is historic", said Jens Petter Johnsen, director of the Church of Norway national council. "What matters is the relationship between Church and people, not between Church and State. We will do our utmost to strengthen the service of the church and with our people."

[...] The changes in the State Church system will require a revision of the country's constitution and some officials see 2013 as the earliest date. The State-Church system was established in Norway in 1537, when the Danish king endorsed the Lutheran reformation.

National Secular Society newsletter (2006 Dec 01)

12. Geographical, Political and Historical Definitions of "Nordic" and "Scandinavian"

#denmark #faroe_islands #finland #iceland #norway #sweden

The Essential World Atlas describes the geographical features of Scandinavia: "Scandinavia is the wide peninsula that divides the Norwegian Sea from the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Bothnia. [...] The Scandinavian Peninsula is dominated by a mountain chain that runs for almost its entire length. In the west, the peaks and plateaus drop steeply to the sea. To the east, they incline more gently towards Sweden's coastal and southern lowlands, and the flat, lake-studded terrain that covers most of Finland. Separated from Sweden by a sliver of sea, Denmark consists of fertile plains and low hills. In stark contrast, far-flung Iceland is a mountainous, mostly barren land that continues to be fashioned by earthquakes, volcanoes, and Europe's largest glaciers."70.

Various definitions lead to different lists of which countries are Scandinavian or Nordic. Daftly, some people even get offended by others' definitions. tries to clear it up71:

Geographically speaking, the Scandinavian peninsula is a territory shared by Norway, Sweden and northern Finland. The Scandinavian countries would therefore only be Norway and Sweden.

Linguistically, Swedish, Norwegian and Danish have a common word called "Skandinavien" which refers to the ancient territories of the Norsemen, and for most people in these three countries "Scandinavia" consists only of Sweden, Norway and Denmark. This one is considered to be the most commonly accepted definition of "Scandinavia". However, Iceland was also a Norse territory and Icelandic belongs to the same linguistic family as Swedish, Norwegian and Danish. And so does the Faroe islands. Therefore, you will find some people for which Scandinavia is Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Iceland. And finally, Swedish language is also spoken in Finland and reciprocally, Finnish and Sami languages are spoken in Sweden and Norway. Again, we have a new definition of Scandinavia, which would include Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Iceland and Finland.

Culturally and historically, the north of Europe has been the political playground of the kingdoms of Sweden, Denmark and Norway. Finland was a part of the kingdom of Sweden and Iceland belonged to Norway and Denmark. Besides a common history, politically and economically these five countries have followed a similar model known as the Nordic welfare state since the 20th century. One more time, these five countries are perceived as an unity by some and therefore called by the same name: "Scandinavia".

What are the "Nordic countries"? In such a state of linguistic and geographical confusion, the French came to help us all and invented the term "Pays Nordiques" or "Nordic Countries", which has become the most standard term to bring together Scandinavia, Iceland and Finland under the same umbrella.

13. Estonia: Scandinavian?

#baltic_states #estonia #finland #latvia #lithuania #russia #scandinavia #sweden

Estonia is traditionally considered one of the Baltic nations (alongside Latvia and Lithuania). But as the colonial history of Sweden provides a 100-year window where Estonia was 'scandinavian' due to being ruled by Sweden, it borders the Gulf of Finland, and as it shares many cultural, some linguistic, and economic factors with Scandinavia, some have called for Estonia to be considered Scandinavian72. The Prime Minister of Sweden) from 1991-1994, Mr Bildt, did describe Estonia as part of Scandinavia10 in 2006, but, this claim remains largely ignored. The historical connection to Sweden is tenuous. The public will require time and much convincing if Estonia is to be considered Scandinavian rather than Baltic.

16th Century: Sweden slowly increased their grasp of the eastern shores of the Baltic and during the rule of Erik XIV from 1567 Sweden saw northern Estonia steadily absorbed into their empire. Gustav II Adolf from 1611, invaded Latvia and consolidated Swedish rule of the eastern side of the Baltic. During the reign of King Karl XII, who ruled the Swedish empire from 1697 to 1718, Latvia and Estonia were lost to the Russians after a defeat at Poltava in 1709.73.

14. Sweden (As of 2006)

Kingdom of Sweden

[Country Profile Page]
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index3rd best
Land Area 410 340km24
LocationEurope, Scandinavia
Life Expectancy82.98yrs (2017)74
GNI$54 489 (2017)75
ISO3166-1 CodesSE, SWE, 75276
Internet Domain.se77
CurrencyKronoa (SEK)78

The Best Country in the World! Listed as the 6th best country in the United Nations Human Development Report 2005. Sweden in 1919 was part of the general European rush towards female emancipation, although it was not a world leader in equal votes for women it was still one of the first 10% of the world to arrive there. In modern times, Sweden has the best record for gender equality across a range of issues. It has the worlds' sixth highest life expectancy. The Economist Quality of Life study states that Sweden is the fifth best place to live. From 2001 to the 2003-2004 and 2006 reports, the World Economic Forum has shown Sweden is consistently the third most economically competitive country. Its government was the first, in 1987, to recognize same sex partnerships. One of the least obese countries (10.4% of the population, perhaps 8th least obese in the developed world). Sweden has the best 'high literacy' rate in the world, and not just by a small margin! For a developed country, Swedes do not smoke much and do not drink much; both far less than Western averages. Sweden ranks top in allowing open access to scientific research. In 2005, out of the worlds' most developed countries, Sweden was fourth most generous in giving aid to developing countries, and in 2006 was the 3rd best country for the poor. It has the 7th lowest level of computer software piracy. Transparency International finds Sweden to be the joint fourth for lack of corruption.

The most successful society the world has ever known.

The Guardian80

Sweden is one of the world's best recyclers, and Stockholm hosts the world's second-largest hydrothermal cooling system, saving megawatts of energy that would otherwise be used to electrically power air conditioning81.

Book CoverEvery country has its stereotypes and clichés but, let's face it, who wouldn't want to live up to the image that Sweden has in the outside world? A nation of tall, blonde, attractive types, famously open-minded and nonaggressive (well, at least in the recent past). A country full of athletic folk [...] at the cutting edge of technology (think Ericsson), well cared-for by the state and living very comfortable lives: flash cars parked in the garage (think Volvo and Saab) [...]. Dig even slightly below the glossy surface and you'll find more to be impressed by. [...] Sweden is also home of the Nobel Peace Prize.

"Sweden" by Carolyn Bain (2003)73

For up to date statistics, see: Sweden.

15. Denmark (As of 2006)

Kingdom of Denmark

[Country Profile Page]
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index2nd best
Land Area 42 430km24
LocationEurope, Scandinavia
Life Expectancy81.38yrs (2017)74
GNI$60 365 (2017)75
ISO3166-1 CodesDK, DNK, 20876
Internet Domain.dk82
CurrencyKrone (DKK)78

Only listed as 14th in the world by the United Nations Human Development Report, Denmark is nonetheless a consistent high-ranker in many of the moral issues examined on this page. The World Economic Forum lists Denmark as the 4th most equal country in terms of gender, and was beaten by only four other countries in the historical granting of equal votes to women. The Economist's World in 2005 survey had Denmark rank as the ninth best country for quality of life. The fourth most competitive economy. Gay rights were attained in the 1990s, beaten only by a handful of states. One of the least obese countries in the world. The 3rd best country in the world for high adult literacy. One of the best countries towards the environment; one of the best recyclers. Open Access to scientific research speeds up scientific discovery and advances humanity, Denmark is the 7th most open country in the world. When it comes to accepting asylum seekers, Denmark accepts more than anyone else (74%). It also gives aid third most generously, and does not tie its aid in to its own economy. The Center for Global Development says that Denmark is the second best country at helping the poor of the world. Denmark has the fifth lowest rate of computer software piracy. Transparency International rates Denmark as (jointly) the least corrupt country.

Denmark's Labour Market:

Unemployment, at 4.5%, is at its lowest in over 30 years, inflation is below the euro-area average and growth is faster. The budget surplus hit 3.9% of GDP in 2005. It is Denmark's exceptional performance on jobs that has attracted most attention. [...] The government cannot take all the credit, but many economists fulsomely praise "flexicurity" - a peculiarly Danish blend of a flexible labour market, generous social security and an active labour-market policy with rights and obligations for the unemployed.

The Economist (2006)83

For up to date statistics, see: Denmark.

16. Norway (As of 2006)

Kingdom of Norway

[Country Profile Page]
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral IndexThe Best (#1)
Land Area 304 250km24
LocationEurope, Scandinavia
Life Expectancy83.23yrs (2017)74
GNI$64 660 (2017)75
ISO3166-1 CodesNO, NOR, 57876
Internet Domain.no84
CurrencyKrone (NOK)78

Impressively listed as the best country in the United Nations Human Development Report every year since 2001. The fourth country to allow women the same voting rights as men, in 1913 and coming in 2nd best in the world for gender equality overall. The 12th best life expectancy in the world. The third best country to live in for quality of life. One of the world's most economically competitive countries, coming in annually around 6th (2003-2004) and 12th (2006). It was the second country to officially recognize same-sex marriages, granting almost full legal equality for gay partnerships in 1993. Impressively Norway is the fourth least obese developed nation in the world, only 8.3% of the population are obese. Norway has the second highest high literacy level in the world, second only to Sweden. Norway gives a higher percentage of its National Income as foreign aid than does any other country, and was the 4th best country for the poor in 2006.

However its capital city, Oslo, is the most expensive city to live in in the world (2006, 2007) 85. Norway's wealth comes largely from its off-shore oil deposits, and it very wisely invests much of this for future generations86.

For up to date statistics, see: Norway.

17. Finland (As of 2006)

Republic of Finland

[Country Profile Page]
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index4th best
Land Area 303 890km24
LocationEurope, Scandinavia
Life Expectancy82.04yrs (2017)74
GNI$49 452 (2017)75
ISO3166-1 CodesFI, FIN, 24676
Internet Domain.fi87
CurrencyEuro (EUR)78

Listed as the 13th best country in the United Nations Human Development Report 2005. One of the first countries to give women equal votes with men, beaten only by New Zealand and Australia in 1893 and 1902 respectively. Judging by a range of criteria Finland is in modern times the fifth best country for gender equality. 19th best life expectancy. The most economically competitive country according to the 2001, 2003, and 2004-5 reports from the World Economic Forum (and 2nd place to Switzerland in 2006), with the USA as their hottest contender and previous title-holder. Finland was not one of the first countries where legal equality for homosexuals were attained, but in 2002 it is still ahead the majority of the countries in the world that have not yet got there. Perhaps one of the least obese countries, 10th or so in the developed world. Finland is the fourth best country in the world for high literacy. Open access to scientific research is beneficial to humanity; Finland is the sixth most open country in the world. The 7th best country for the world's poor, in 2006. It has the 4th lowest computer software piracy rate. Transparency International rates Denmark as (jointly) the least corrupt country.

[Despite having been in] one of the worst recessions any European country has seen [...] their small country (5m people) is at or near the top of most league tables: [...] first in the OECD's world ranking of educational performance; second-highest share of R&D spending in the European Union. The country is reversing its demographic decline: its fertility rate is one of the highest in Europe. A Finnish group even won this years' Eurovision song contest.

The Economist (2006)88

The 'real lesson' to learn from Finland is organisation and responsibility. Its government makes tough political decisions that are unpopular but good for the long-term health of the country88, and has a powerful green lobby, showing responsibility for both self-care and world-care.

Around two-thirds of Finland is covered in forest and about a tenth by water. In the far north the White Nights, during which the sun does not set, last for around 10 weeks of the summer. In winter the same area goes through nearly eight weeks when the sun never rises above the horizon.

BBC Website89 lists:

For up to date statistics, see: Finland.

18. High Taxes (As of 2006)

#belgium #denmark #finland #iceland #norway #sweden #UK

Taxes (% of GDP) (2006)
On Income, Wealth, etc. (not trade).

1. Denmark30.3Denmark30.1
2. Sweden22.2Norway21.7
3. Finland21.3Iceland19.4
4. Norway20.2Sweden19.4
5. Belgium17.1Finland17.8
6. UK16.6Belgium16.8
7. Iceland16.5UK15.6
EU Average (EU25)13.8 12.5

Source: Eurostat90

The Nordic states consistently have the world's highest taxes83 (see chart), pursued half-heartedly by Belgium and the UK and the most expensive living costs. Those who live there tend not to complain, as they have a very high quality of life, but, immigrants and outsiders could easily be overwhelmed.

19. The Demographics Crises and Immigration

An issue of the future is the demographic shift towards an older population - the 'demographic crises', something all developed countries are having to face up to. Although low unemployment may sound good; a combination of a labour shortage and a greying workforce means that many Nordic countries' economies have are being throttled. As a result, wages will rise as companies cling to their existing employees, and therefore exports will suffer due to an increase in the cost of goods.

The Swedish response has been the most radical: a proposal that will virtually guarantee entry to any non-EU worker with a job offer from a Swedish employer. [...] The labour minister, Tobias Billstrom, says foreign workers are needed to counter a greying population and shrinking labour force.

The Economist (2008)91