Buddhism is an Atheist Religion

#atheism #buddhism #religion

Buddhism is an atheist religion because in the creation narrative of Buddhism, the samsaric cycle that is responsible for the cosmos was not created by god(s), nor is it ran by gods. Everything is subservient to this without-gods (a-theos - atheist) system. Nearly all classical Buddhist scholars assert that Buddhism is atheistic. Nonetheless, Buddhist texts often talk of gods (just as the Old Testament does) although they are not the same kind of eternal being that Westerners would expect - the cause of this is that there are no easy words to describe the nature of some of the powerful beings that inhabit Buddhist stories without using the word "gods". Despite the appearance of such beings, however, it is certainly untrue to say that Buddhism is formally theistic, therefore, it is best described as atheistic.

1. Supporting evidence

#atheism #buddhism #christianity #theism

  1. Book CoverChristmas Humphreys was President of the Buddhist Society, London, from its foundation in 1924 until its Silver Jubilee in 1954. In his book Buddhism he writes "as between the theist and atheist positions, Buddhism is atheist"1.

  2. In a prominent book by one of the founders of academic religious studies, "The Varieties of Religious Experience" by William James (1902) [Book Review], James says "there are systems of thought which the world usually calls religious, and yet which do not positively assume a God. Buddhism is in this case. Popularly, of course, the Buddha himself stands in place of a God; but in strictness the Buddhistic system is atheistic"2.

  3. Historian John William Draper (1881) says that "Buddhism acknowledges that there is a supreme Power, but denies that there is a supreme Being"3. Ergo, Buddhism is religious, but not theistic.

  4. Tanebaum, Center for Interreligious Understanding, publish statistics on world religions and note that Buddhists can sometimes be double-counted because they are included as "religious" and "atheist"4. This only happens, of course, when we fail to realize that "non-religious" means non-religious, and "atheist" does not mean non-religious. So if you add "atheists" to "religious" stats, you will end up double-counting Buddhists.

  5. Edward Conze states in Buddhist Scriptures "that what are sometimes referred to as 'gods' in Buddhist texts are merely 'enlightened beings', and not what the West means by the word 'god'"5.

  6. Karen Armstrong (1986) notes that Buddhists are as religious as other religionists, yet, are atheist6.

  7. André Droogers' essay Defining Religion: A Social Science Approach warns that too many definitions of religion are exclusively monotheistic and says that this causes a "problem" - if religion is defined purely in terms of theism "some forms of Buddhism would have to be excluded"7.

  8. The Penguin Dictionary of Religions' entry on Buddhism points out that in all of reality Buddhas are "reckoned to be its highest beings [but they] are not conceived of as omnipotent creators of the universe"8.

  9. "Contrary to what many Westerners think, traditional Buddhists do not worship Buddha as a god. Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha, never claimed to be a god. Therefore, most Buddhists are atheists" -- Guy Harrison in "50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a God" (2008)9.

  10. Stephen Batchelor, a lifelong Buddhist and a Buddhist monk for 13 years from 1972 to 1985, still teaches and talks on Buddhism. He says "when someone asks me if I believe in God, I have to answer that I have no idea what the question means... the Buddha likewise, and his followers, have never had use, or need for, a word which would be equivalent to the English word, God".10

  11. Buddhist scholar Trevor Ling compares the theistic religion of Christianity to the atheistic one of Buddhism11.

  12. Stella Duffy, a Nichiren Daishonin Buddhist of 25 years standing, states "I don't believe in God. Buddhists don't believe in God"12.

2. Partial Counter-Evidence

#atheism #bahá'í_faith #buddhism

Religion is complicated, and there is often a discrepancy between what the cultural followers of a religion do, and what the religion formally asserts. In "Cultural Religion Versus Scholarly Religion" by Vexen Crabtree (2013) I explain how it is normal for a religion to be officially one thing, but for the grassroots masses to have a variety of cultural beliefs and practices, sometimes making it hard to clearly define what a religion is. It happens that Buddhist texts often mention gods, and, some Buddhists themselves often worship various gods9.

  1. Book CoverIn "The Phenomenon Of Religion: A Thematic Approach" by Moojan Momen (1999) [Book Review] the worship of deities is said to have continued in many forms of Buddhism despite Western scholars thinking that, because of their texts, Buddhism was atheist13. Note that Momen is a Bahá'í who therefore believes in a certain unity of all religions under a single god, therefore he comes from a slightly biased position.

  2. In Zen Buddhism no assumptions are made about any mind that might be responsible ultimate reality. It is unclear whether or not ultimate realty should be described as being ruled by an intelligent being or not:

    This mysterious Mind... is higher than the highest, deeper than the deepest, limitless in all directions. There is no centre in it. No distinction of east and west, and above and below. Is it empty? Yes, but not empty like space. Has it a form? Yes, but has no form dependent on another for its existence. Is it intelligent? Yes, but not intelligent like your mind. Is it non-intelligent? Yes, but not non-intelligent like trees and stone.

    Kwei Fung (Kei-ho)
    In "Zen - The Religion of the Samurai" by Kaiten Nukariya (1913)14

By Vexen Crabtree 2003 Oct 12
(Last Modified: 2017 Feb 05)
Parent page: Buddhism

References: (What's this?)

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Armstrong, Karen
(1986) The Gospel According to Woman: Christianity's Creation of the Sex War in the West. Hardback book. Subtitled: "Christianity's Creation of the Sex War in the West". Published by Elm Tree Books/Hamish Hamilton Ltd, London, UK.

BBC Radio
Belief. BBC Radio series hosted by Joan Bakewell.

Clarke, Peter B.. Peter B. Clarke: Professor Emeritus of the History and Sociology of Religion, King's College, University of London, and currently Professor in the Faculty of Theology, University of Oxford, UK.
(2011) The Oxford Handbook of The Sociology of Religion. Paperback book. Originally published 2009. Current version published by Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Conze, Edward
(1959) Buddhist Scriptures. Paperback book. Published by Penguin Books.

Draper, John William. (1811-1882)
(1881) History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science. E-book. 8th (Amazon Kindle digital edition) edition. Published by D. Appleston and Co, New York, USA.

Droogers, André
(2011) Defining Religion: A Social Science Approach. This essay is chapter 14 of "The Oxford Handbook of The Sociology of Religion" by Peter B. Clarke (2011) (pages 263-279).

Harrison, Guy P.
(2008) 50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a God. E-book. Amazon Kindle digital edition. Published by Prometheus Books, New York, USA.

Hinnells, John R.. Currently professor of theology at Liverpool Hope University.
(1997, Ed.) The Penguin Dictionary of Religions. Paperback book. Originally published 1984. Current version published by Penguin Books, London, UK. References to this book simply state the title of the entry used.

Humphreys, Christmas
(1954) Buddhism. Paperback book. Christmas was President of the Buddhist Society, London, from its foundation in 1924 until its Silver Jubilee..

James, William. (1842-1910)
(1902) The Varieties of Religious Experience. Paperback book. Subtitled: "A Study in Human Nature". 5th (1971 fifth edition) edition. Originally published 1960. From the Gifford Lectures delivered at Edinburgh 1901-1902. Quotes also obtained from Amazon digital Kindle 2015 Xist Publishing edition. Book Review.

Ling, Trevor
(1997) Buddhism and the Mythology of Evil. Paperback book. Originally published 1962 by George Allen & Unwin Ltd. Current version published by Oneworld Publications, Oxford, UK.

Momen, Moojan
(1999) The Phenomenon Of Religion: A Thematic Approach. Paperback book. Published by Oneworld Publications, Oxford, UK. Book Review.

Nukariya, Kaiten. Professor of Kei-O-Gi-Jiku University and of So-To-Shu Buddhist College, Tokyo.
(1913) Zen - The Religion of the Samurai. E-book. Subtitled: "A study of Zen philosophy and discipline in China and Japan". Amazon Kindle digital edition produced by John B. Hare and proofread by Carrie R. Lorenz.


  1. Humphreys (1954) chapter "No God, No Soul" p79.^
  2. James (1902) p50.^
  3. Draper (1881) p122. Added to this page on 2013 Nov 22.^
  4. Added to this page on 2013 Nov 22. Tanebaum, Center for Interreligious Understanding, "World Religions Fact Sheet", on https://www.tanenbaum.org, accessed 2013 Nov 10. Added to this page on 2013 Nov 22.^
  5. Conze (1959) p221.^
  6. Armstrong (1986) p212. Added to this page on 2013 Nov 22.^
  7. Droogers (2011) p272. Added to this page on 2015 May 16.^
  8. Hinnells (1997) entry "Buddha".^
  9. Harrison (2008) chapter 10 "Believing in my god makes me happy". Added to this page on 2014 Aug 08.^^
  10. BBC Radio, Belief (2013 Apr 05) episode "Confession of a Buddhist Atheist". Added to this page on 2015 May 16.^
  11. Ling (1997) p91.^
  12. BBC Radio, Belief (2012 Jan 04) episode "Stella Duffy" at 13 minutes.^
  13. Momen (1999) p53.^
  14. Nukariya (1913) p53.^

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