UK Trash Culture

1. Introduction

Trash Culture is specifically British. It has become the mainstream culture across the United Kingdom. It is characterized by binge drinking, smoking, stupidity, the active hatred of intelligence & responsible behaviour, fashion-conscious youths, ignorant uneducated adults, misbehaviour at school, petty crime, organized crime, violence, homophobia, racism and xenophobia. Its greatest social monuments are pub culture and football, and its main facilitators are peer pressure, trashy tabloids such as The Daily Mail and The Sun, and uneducated, irresponsible parenting.

The Institute for Public Policy Research reported in 2007 that British teenagers are the worst behaved in Europe1. In 2006 it reported that between British, French, German and Italian youngsters, the British are near the top of every table comparing drugs, drink, violence and promiscuity2. The UK has the highest rate of under 18s pregnancies not only in Europe, but in all the developed world except for the USA3. The Daily Mail reported we "are more likely to binge-drink, take drugs [...] and start fights". "38% confessed to trying cannabis, more than five times the rate in Sweden. British teenagers are also bigger drinkers, with 27 per cent admitting to getting drunk regularly. In Italy, the figure is five per cent and in France it is just three per cent."1. Uri Geller, an Israeli celebrity psychic, people-watcher and occasional social commentator, complains about "our drinking culture which has gone beyond normal, social behaviour. Walk about any city on a Friday night and you will see young people boozed up and behaving terribly."4. "Townies", and drunken ones at that, make most city centres and the areas around popular pubs unfriendly and noisy places across all of Britain, every Friday night.

An important element of trash culture is its self-propagation. The individual elements of it encourage the others. If you smoke whilst young, you are more likely to drink too. It is a downwards cycle; drinking mothers reduce their average IQ of their children, and the less intelligent are more likely to drink more. Even the overindulgence in fast food can cause pregnant mothers' children to be born addicted to junk food5. On this page I draw on academic research showing how these things are related. Sociologists would give the name of secondary reference group to the position of trash culture in the UK. This means that the general background culture is a culture of short-term thrill-seeking & youthful ignorance, and this is the cultural reference under which all subcultures exist in the UK. A primary reference group is normally an individual's immediate family. Academic circles, intelligent subcultures, highly skilled classes, etc, have all become effective subcultures to trash culture. In the history of the British Empire it was the educated, ignorant-but-educated masses that was the mainstream culture. Sometime since the late 1940s, trash culture rose to prominence and displaced aristocratic idealism as the central mass. This decade has seen heavy government intervention cause slow reverses in some of these trends, but the cycle of trash culture remains. To break it, each individual element must be resisted and greater levels of general education must be reached.

2. The Elements of Trash Culture

2.1. Binge Drinking & Pub Culture

In 1998 the UK government reported that 40 000 deaths per year are alcohol-related6. Per-capita consumption of alcohol in the UK has doubled since the late 1950s, whilst in other developed countries such as France and Italy, it has more than halved7. The price of alcohol, in real terms, is half what it was in the 1970s7. Between 1995 and 2001, binge drinking increased by 35% in the UK7. Despite government efforts to reduce excessive drinking, according to the NHS "hundreds more" children are admitted to hospital after drinking [in 2005] than five years ago, diagnosed with alcohol poisoning and "behavioural disorders because of excessive drinking"8: In 2009 this was confirmed by "an OECD report identifying its teenagers as the world's drunkest, among other dubious accolades"9. Death rates from cirrhosis, primarily caused by excessive drinking, "the increase is reflected in rising death rates from chronic liver disease, the primary cause of which is too much drink. In the 30 years between 1970 and 2000, death by cirrhosis for people aged 25 to 44 rose an astonishing 900%, from about 80 cases a year to more than 700".7.

Alcohol-related crime commands the single biggest use of police manpower in the UK and alcoholism and binge drinking is by far the biggest social problem that British society faces. UK holidaymakers and football fans abroad are bemoaned as the most drunken and most unruly of all foreign travellers. It disgraces the UK; other European countries such as Italy and France have no such problems. Binge drinking is not only a problem acknowledged by health and government officials, but it is also something they think all citizens ought to be warned about... its definition appears in the UK Citizenship Test lexicon's list of words that immigrants ought to learn10.

Alcohol, irresponsible behaviour, crime and all the other factors of trash culture are all inter-related. Sociologists sometimes classify households according to the wages of the principal income earner of the house; "lower social groups tend to smoke more, drink more, take less leisure, fewer holidays and participate less in voluntary work"8. There is an association between poverty and drinking, but also between drinking and smoking, and between drinking and all the other aspects of trash culture.

2.2. Smoking

England has one of the highest smoking rates in Europe. Eire banned smoking in all public places and the first commercial culprit was hit hardest: Pubs. Recent Labour government curbs on smoking, including advertising bans, compulsory health warnings, stricter controls on the minimum age for purchasing nicotine products have all reduced smoking levels, but it is still a major problem and further measures are constantly being considered. Trash culture is short-sighted and compulsive; it is unable to control itself and does not want to. Peer pressure has reduced sensible behaviour to the point where the government has needed to step in; such is the all-pervading nuisance of mass stupidity. Much of the following is duplicated on:

Smoking costs Britain - there is no benefit of smoking. Smokers lack self-control and are selfish, draining the country of resources and health because of their own inability to consider the effects of smoking socially or personally. They are inconsiderate towards those who care about themselves who of course do not want to see their health suffer.

Book CoverThe Health Education Authority refers to the current situation as 'the smoking epidemic' and estimates that smoking is responsible for approximately 110 000 deaths a year. This amounts to roughly 17 per cent of all deaths. Some 285 000 people are admitted to hospital because of smoking and on average occupy 9500 hospital beds. The total cost of smoking to the National Health Service is £437 million.

"Britain's Population: Demographic Issues in Contemporary Society"
Stephen Jackson (1998)11

While Jackson (1998) states above that there are approximately 110 000 deaths a year from smoking, the Secretary of State for Health (1998) states a slightly worse 120 00012. It is evident that the social conditions that lead to this kind of short-term, short-sighted attitude to health is demographically linked to the under-educated, less-intelligent portions of the population.

Patterns of smoking vary significantly between different social groups. Approximately 15 per cent of professionals smoke in comparison to over 40 per cent of unskilled manual workers.

"Britain's Population: Demographic Issues in Contemporary Society"
Stephen Jackson (1998)13

Smoking is intertwined deeply with trash culture. It is more common amongst unskilled and manual workers, prevails among "less educated" individuals14, and is associated with poverty. If you smoke, you are more likely to drink. If you smoke or drink, you are also more likely to do drugs. This is the result of the 1999 publication from the Office for National Statistics entitled "Smoking, drinking and drug use among young teenagers in 1998". A key factor of trash culture is that it is self-promoting. Once trash habits become accepted, they spread themselves. This entire culture is itself a harmful disease.

Amongst young teenagers, "the likelihood of having ever used drugs is strongly related to smoking experience: 63% of regular smokers had used drugs, compared with only 1% of those who had never smoked". With drinking the statistics are also similar and cyclic: 44% of young teenagers who drink also get involved in drugs, compared with only 1% of children who don't drink. And importantly, in case it is doubted that all these factors propagate one another, "virtually no children who had never smoked or drunk had ever used drugs".

The key for parents and teenagers is to delay drinking and smoking until children are older. This usually means giving up themselves, especially in front of their children.

So far we have seen that smoking, drinking and immature drug use have all gone hand in hand. The evidence is social, but there is also direct biological links between smoking and trash culture that transcend social factors, as reported in the British Medical Journal (2005)15:

This direct link is part of the self-propagation of the irresponsible and short-sighted aspects of trash culture. What is more is that the effect of smoking takes place across all income classes. It affects the children of professionals as much as the children of the unemployed: Money cannot make up for the loss accrued from smoke (and passive smoking) during pregnancy.

2.3. Stupidity

In youthful trash culture, intelligence is attacked. In pubs, intelligent conversation is frowned upon, scorned, laughed at and sought for as a target for ridicule. That mainstream culture rejects better people is not new, but the depths to which this has permeated British culture is the principal dangerous aspect of trash culture. Mature relationships, long-term planning, health, fitness, responsible living and all other personal endeavours are scoffed at. It is a mass reaction against anything elitist, so much so that intelligent culture has abandoned large swathes of the country, retreating into sidelined subcultures. The youthful short-term wish-fulfillment of trash culture has become the accepted norm.

Jeremy Paxman (1998)16 charts the modern British rejection of intelligence. Intellectuals, once respected, now hide. Across British lands we distrust, ridicule and dislike them. It is an odd and disappointing loss, in a country responsible for the foundation of so much of Western academia! The only consolation is that we are still endowed with common sense; the ordinary Brit is resourceful even whilst ignorant.

As a result of the lack of understanding of issues and facts, the populace hold "ideals", meaning thinking, to be useless. Debate of ideas is frowned upon, distrusted and disliked. The rejection of intellectual methods of debate, argument and active learning are all rejected; instead it has become taboo to question peoples' opinions and beliefs on issues. Frank Furedi writes insightfully that "a strong argument has been redefined as a form of mental intimidation", I quote him in full below. This modern trend is also eating away at the superiority of British Universities, the once-bastions of worldly knowledge and wisdom!

Book CoverBritish universities encourage academics to ban an 'adversarial' style of debate from the seminar rooms and provide a 'supportive environment' for students. A strong argument has been redefined as a form of mental intimidation. Such attitudes are even more in evidence on American campuses. 'Debate has gotten a very bad name in our culture', notes Jeff Nunokawa, a professor of English at Princeton University. '[I]t's become synonymous with some of the most non-intellectual forms of bullying, rather than as an opportunity for deliberative democracy.'

Given the extent to which the authority of knowledge has been devalued, the negative connotations acquired by conflict of opinion and heated debate are entirely understandable. With so little at stake, what's the point of arguing? If ideas have such little consequence, insistence of one's point of view appears as pig-headedness and bad manners. Criticizing someone else's ideas is readily interpreted as ego-tripping or as an act of insensitivity, while the very act of questioning someone's view can appear as a personal insult. 'It's as though there's no distinction between the person and the argument, as though to criticize an argument would be injurious to the person', observes Amanda Anderson, an English professor at Johns Hopkins University.

"Where Have All the Intellectuals Gone?" by Frank Furedi (2004)17

It is not only the University academia that has become loathed, but also the authority of scientific knowledge. Hughes and Fergusson, two sociologists with the Open University, write that although the notion of an authority figure of knowledge & intellect was respected and trusted, nowadays their wisdom is not appreciated by UK society18. They say in the UK that "we have become progressively disenchanted with those who claim to be grand 'experts', especially those that rely upon the authority of science to back up their claims". The anti-intellect and anti-responsibility auras of popular culture both combine to form a particularly ignorant form of science-blindness amongst masses of the population.

More humorously, in the light hearted "How to be an Alien" George Mikes says that "in England it is bad manners to be clever, to assert something confidently. It may be your own personal view that two and two make four, but you must not state it in a self-assured way, because this is a democratic country and others may be of a different opinion"19.

2.4. Fashion Slavery

British youths in particular (not so much older people) are very fashion-conscious. As in history, cliques are largely identified by fashion. The worrying thing in trash culture is that others are actively hated for dressing differently. Whereas in other cultures differences are accepted as part of the natural order of society, in trash culture only the "in" styles of dress are seen as "normal". Toleration extends to business suits only through pragmatism, but stops short of anything else. So, those who wear foreign dress, religious dress, the alternative dress of subcultures, etc, are all actively sought out as victims. This problem persists as much in rural areas as it does in urban ones. Although not unique to trash culture, this style of shallow intolerance is notable for its deeper ignorance than is usual. Thankfully, this particular aspect does seem to reduce with age, so that it is worse with the youths.

2.5. Ignorant Adult Population

Three generations of trash culture have existed since its rise to prominence after World War 2, and many of its anti-intellectual youths institutionalized the culture. It is now the only known culture for most of Britain. Uneducated adults of the first wave have produced an entrenched system of family-based and local systems of ignorance. Adults with racist, stupid, ignorant and short-sighted emotional goals pass on all their mistakes to their children. It has become self-sustaining, so that the children in such families are not pressurized into becoming more developed, intelligent adults. In fact that type of future is actively discouraged. Only the most unique children break free; as such trash culture has become the default from which escape is necessary: it is no longer a potential trap to fall into, but a central culture to be actively fought out of. It is socially institutionalized. Since the 1960s there have been no more English gentlemen20. Once we were the elite of Europe... now we're ignorant enough to reject and hate Europe; causing it to hate us, against its nature, in return.

2.6. Misbehaviour at School

Something has gone wrong with the British educational system, and it is probably trash culture itself that has caused the problems. Children are coming into the schooling system completely undisciplined, uneducated and unsocialized. Many parents are failing to teach children some of the basics, relying completely on schools for all their child's education and forgetting their own duties. Teachers are having to double-up as crowd-control agents and triple-up as moral teachers, with a healthy dose of self defence training proving itself useful too.

The peer pressure to conform to the negatives of trash culture is powerful; the combination of thrill-seeking, lazy thinking and irresponsibility combine with social pressure to form an almost irresistible force. For example children are given by their parents, "crisps and chocolate for school breaks to prevent peer ridicule", according to a study in the Midlands21. Ill health, obesity and lack of exercise are three things that also dim intellectual health. A physically fit body has biochemical advantages for the brain. But, the irresponsibility and stupidity of trash culture effect parents, so that the entire lifestyle of their children is permitted to go down the drain.

These children in turn appear more likely to fail to educate their children, therefore perpetuating a cycle from which people escape only in ones and twos. Multiple attempts to reform schooling have not been successful and the government is reluctant to be seen to be interfering in parenting. An entire culture change is required.

2.7. Petty Crime & Organized Crime

The decline of several major industries in the UK and the dismantling of the Empire left a country with fundamental holes in its social fabric. This, as much as the trash culture that rose to fill the space, caused the occurrence of petty crime at the same levels as seen in other modern industrial countries. Traditionally (they say) a more dutiful country of obedient citizens; the British lost their code of honour. Petty crime, robbery, street crime and the likes are a part of all major cities, but it seems it is made doubly worse by the pervading drunken, short-sighted trash culture; and such a behaviour is learned and therefore runs in families22. A culture of anti-police and anti-authoritarianism exists where criminals are all but encouraged. This was apparent in the nineteenth century when professional police forces were gradually being created across Europe and it was the British who protested most loudly; Britain came to lag behind Europe in the effectiveness of the judiciaries and in civilities23. Small-time benefit fraud has become a norm in all poverty-stricken families as the short-term, muddled minds of the mainstream populace fail to see the long-term consequences of social misbehaviour. Selfishness and irresponsible behaviour extends to both the criminal and innocent sides of pub culture.

2.8. Violence

The British public are infamous for their violent behaviour, but it is only really the central trash culture that acts it out. The pub-centered socializing breeds violence and destructive aggression. Nearly all outbursts of family violence occur in houses where the pub is the principal port of call; and most domestic incidents are reported to occur whilst the aggressor is under the influence of drink. Violent crime is not notably bad in the UK, but it is part-and-parcel of the unwise, thrill-seeking masses.

2.9. Xenophobia

2.9.1. Immigration

The UK is a notable exception to the generally multicultural style of Europe. Despite being a very mixed country (London is the most diverse city on Earth) the central popularist culture of the UK is very intolerant of foreign-looking things. Different styles of dress, customs, religions and accents are all cruelly stereotyped especially by some 'trashy' and very popular news outlets. Over the last few decades such overt racism has mostly made itself absent, and things are getting better. Focal points of expressions of xenophobia are pubs and football matches, the two greatest shrines of trash culture.

Opinion polls consistently show that Britons are concerned about immigration, which they think is running out of control. [...] Television images of Afghans pouring into the Channel Tunnel particularly offended the island mentality. For the last three years, fewer would-be refugees have made it to Britain, thanks to better border security [...]. The number of asylum-seekers is now the lowest it has been for more than a decade. Oddly, though, public disquiet is as strong as ever.

The Economist (2006)24

An Ipsos Mori poll in the summer of 2013 found that across multiple areas of popular opinion, including such hot topics as crime, benefit fraud and immigration, public opinion was in sync with the sensationalist headlines of cheap newspapers, rather than in sync with reality. People think that recent immigrants make up an astounding one third of the population (in reality, it is 13%). Non-whites are thought to make up 30% of the population. The reality is that only 11% of the British population is Asian or black. A few popularist media outlets - and pseudo-documentaries - have concentrated on the "waves" of immigrants who come to the UK in order to claim benefits, even though the vast majority come here to work, and go home when they're done (just as us Brits do when we work abroad). "The public think that £24 of every £100 of benefits is fraudulently claimed. Official estimates are that just 70 pence in every £100 is fraudulent". Across the board, people blame 'foreigners' for financial and social woes in a way that is often not actually racist, but is certainly very uninformed - and misinformed. They think that foreign aid is one of the top 3 three things the government spends money on - after a long series of misleading articles by the Daily Mail newspaper - and several anti-foreigner parties have campaigned with the policy that this has to end. But in reality, foreign aid makes up 1.1% of the budget, and lots of that goes to countries where we have a national interest in fostering stability anyway. These things really ought to be no issue at all, but numbers get inflated along with people's concerns and biases.

Countries such as Denmark, Finland and Sweden all accept a higher rate of asylum seekers than the UK and yet these countries do not have the problems that many in the UK complain about. Denmark's rate of 74% makes our 43% look positively timid. Although papers such as the Daily Mail make it seem otherwise, the influx of Asylum Seekers is very low compared with skilled and employed immigrants. Some single-issue parties make themselves popular purely on an anti-immigration and anti-foreigner stance.

See: The Benefits to the UK of Immigration.

2.9.2. Europhobia

Irresponsible popular newspapers such as The Daily Mail and The Sun have led long campaigns, resulting in widespread misconceptions and hostility to Europe, even though neither "troubles to keep a staff correspondent in Brussels" to see what is going on there. As a result of British prickliness "many EU countries are fed up with Britain and especially, with the Tories". In a democratic institution involving so many countries the only way to get what you want is to compromise, so senior Conservative leaders have expressed hope for a more harmonious relationship, including Mr Cameron and William Hague.25

Why is the Tory party so Eurosceptic? One answer is that it reflects public opinion. So the real question should be why so many of the British (and more specifically, the English) are so hostile to the European project. Eurobarometer polls consistently put Britain at or near the bottom of the heap in answers to such questions as whether EU membership is a good thing or how much trust people have in the EU institutions. The explanation for such views is to be found partly in the country's geography and history, partly in its experience as a member and partly in ignorance and prejudice. [...] Making things worse is a profound ignorance of what the EU does and how it works.

The Economist (2010)25

One effect, because of the sensationalism of the press, is a massive exaggeration in the popular mind of how many EU immigrants there are in the UK. Even those who accept and embrace the EU (i.e. 'Remain' voters in the 2016 referendum) think there are twice as many EU immigrants as there really are:

What do people think is the % of the UK that are EU immigrants? The average guess is 15 percent, but the real figure is 3.5%

Source: Ipsos MORI poll (2016)26

Europhobia is a compound effect of various elements of trash culture combined: xenophobia, adult ignorance, distrust of intellectuals and reliance on poor sources of news on politics.


By Vexen Crabtree 2004 Nov 26
(Last Modified: 2016 Jun 21)
Parent page: United Kingdom: National Successes and Social Failures

References: (What's this?)

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The Economist. Published by The Economist Group, Ltd. A weekly newspaper in magazine format, famed for its accuracy, wide scope and intelligent content. See for some commentary on this source.

(2008) Life in the UK Test: Study Guide. Third edition. First edition 2006. Amazon link is to a newer edition. Red Squirrel Publishing, London, UK.

Becket and Chandler
(1994, Eds.) The Oxford History of the British Army. Compiled in 1994. Oxford University Press. Quotes taken from the 2003 reissue of 1996 edition.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2009) "The Worst of the Modern Mass Media" (2009). Accessed 2016 Jun 21.
(2015) "Alcohol: The Social & Medical Effects and How to Combat Misuse" (2015). Accessed 2016 Jun 21.

Davison & Neale
(1997) Abnormal Psychology. Hardback 7th edition. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Amazon link points to a newer edition than the one I've used here.

Furedi, Frank. Professor of sociology at the University of Kent, UK.
(2004) Where Have All the Intellectuals Gone?. Quotes from original hardback edition.

Hollin, Clive R.
(1989) Psychology and Crime. An introduction to criminological psychology. 2006 reprint. Published by Routledge.

Ipsos Mori
(2013) Survey conducted for the Royal Statistical Society and King's College London, by Ipsos Mori. A phone survey of 1,1015 people. Reported in The Independent article "British public wrong about nearly everything, survey shows" on 2013 Jul 09

Jackson, Stephen
(1998) Britain's Population: Demographic Issues in Contemporary Society. Published by Routledge.

Mikes, George
(1970) How to be an Alien. Penguin Books.

Office for National Statistics
"Smoking, drinking and drug use among young teenagers in 1998" (1999). Published by the Office for National Statistics, London, UK.

Paxman, Jeremy
(1998) The English. Quotes from 1999 Penguin Books edition.

Secretary of State for Health
(1998) Our Healthier Nation: A Contract for Health. Government consultation paper presented to Parliament (CM3852).


  1. Daily Mail (2007 Jul 26) article "UK Teens Worst Behaved in Europe" by Laura Clark. Added to this page on 2007 Jul 30.^^
  2. Added to this page on 2006 Dec 06. BBC News article "UK youths 'among worst in Europe'" (2006 Nov 02).^
  3. The Economist (2008 Aug 30) article "Sex education: Never too late to learn" p36. Added to this page on 2008 Sep 23.^
  4. "There's a lot we hate about Britain too, Sue", article on the website of The Mirror, a UK newspaper, by David Edwards 2004 Feb 26.^^
  5. The Guardian (2007 Aug 15) article "Eating for two puts unborn child at risk of junk addiction" at URL Accessed 2007 Aug 17. Added to this page on 2007 Aug 17.^
  6. Secretary of State for Health (1998).^
  7. BBC News article "UK youths 'among worst in Europe'" (2006 Nov 02).^
  8. "UK Health Care, The Facts" edited by Peter Orton and John Fry, 1995. Published in the UK by Kluwer Academic Publishers, Lancaster, p150.^
  9. The Economist (2009 Sep 05) article "Vice and social class" p39. Added to this page on 2009 Nov 25.^
  10. Life in the UK Test: Study Guide (2008) . 'Binge Drinking' was one of only 9 words beginning with B. Added to this page on 2013 Jan 14.^
  11. Jackson (1998) p93.^
  12. Secretary of State for Health, 1998 paragraph 2.21. Added to this page on 2006 Nov 25.^
  13. Jackson (1998), p94.^
  14. Davison & Neale (1997) p301.^
  15. British Medical Journal (2005 Mar 05), vol. 330, p499 article "Smoking in late pregnancy is linked to lower IQ in offspring". Ref. added to this page in 2006 May.^
  16. Paxman (1998) p191-193.^
  17. Furedi (2004) p75.^
  18. Hughes & Fergusson (2004) p20-21.^
  19. Mikes (1970) p36.^
  20. Paxman (1998) ch. Ideal Englishman.^
  21. Office for National Statistics (1997).^
  22. Hollin (1989) p24. "A number of studies were reported which showed that convicted offenders came from families with a criminal history (Dugdale 1910; Estabrook 1916). More recent studies have reached similar conclusions: Osborn and West (1979), for example, found that about 40 per cent of the sons of criminal fathers were criminal themselves, compared with a figure of 13 per cent for sons of non-criminal fathers. Hurwitz and Christiansen (1983) provide a thorough review of this research."^
  23. Anderson (1985) p160.^
  24. The Economist (2006 May 11) Vol.378 No.8468, article "Pick and Mix" p29-30. Added to this page on 2006 May 28.^
  25. The Economist (2010 Apr 23) article "Britain and Europe".^
  26. The Independent article "EU referendum: British public wrong about nearly everything, survey shows" (2016 Jun 10). Accessed 2016 Jun 21.^
  27. BBC News artcile "Paris Metro racist abuse victim calls for Chelsea fans' punishment" (2015 Feb 19.^
  28. The Economist (2006 Mar 11) Vol.378 No.8468, article "Pick and Mix" p29-30. Added to this page in 2006 May.
  29. Paxman (1998) p244.^
  30. Paxman (1998) p245-246.^
  31. The Guardian article "Chelsea fan in Paris Métro video posed in picture with Nigel Farage" (2015 Feb 19).^
  32. Added to this page on 2015 Mar 05.^
  33. BBC News article "Diabetes up amid rising obesity" (2007 Oct 22). Added to this page on 2015 Mar 05.^
  34. Becket & Chandler (1994) Towards the Future by Michael Yardley, on p426-428. Added to this page on 2015 Mar 05.^
  35. Boreham & Blenkinsop (2004) p15.^
  36. Davison & Neale (1997) p418.^
  37. Davison & Neale (1997) p315.^
  38. Added to this page on 2006 Aug 01.^
  39. The Economist (2006 May 13) article "Mad dogs and Englishmen". Added to this page on 2006 May 15.^
  40. The Guardian, "Britain's binge drinkers begin to sober up" 2006 Nov 29. Quote added to page on 2006 Dec 06, slightly editing the text on "The Government's Response to Trash Culture".^
  41. The Economist (2012 Feb 11) article "Brewers: Pints are becoming weaker". Quote:  Several brewers have launched new lower-alcohol lines in the past five years, including a new range of 2.8% brews. Even flagship brands are getting weaker. Carlsberg Export, Stella Artois, Budweiser, Beck's and Cobra are all cutting their alcohol content from 5% to 4.8% in Britain. The shift is small - brewers hope consumers will not notice . Added to this page on 2013 Jan 14.^
  42. The Economist (2007 Nov 10) article "Education reform" p42.^

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